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Throughout the history of our planet, nations and entire countries have been at enmity. This led to the formation of conflicts on a truly global scale. The nature of life itself provokes the survival of the fittest and fittest. But, unfortunately, the king of nature destroys not only everything around, but also destroys his own kind.
All the main changes on the planet over the past several thousand years are associated precisely with human activities. Maybe the desire to conflict with your own kind has a genetic basis? One way or another, but it will be difficult to remember such a moment in time when peace reigned everywhere on Earth.
Conflicts bring pain and suffering, but almost all of them are still localized in some geographic or professional area. In the end, such skirmishes end with the intervention of someone stronger or a successful compromise.
However, the most destructive conflicts involve the largest number of nations, countries and individuals. However, there have been many other truly global conflicts in history that it is time to remember.
Thirty Years War. These events took place between 1618 and 1648 in Central Europe. For the continent, this was the first-ever global military conflict that affected almost all countries, including even Russia. A skirmish began with religious clashes in Germany between Catholics and Protestants, which grew into a struggle against the hegemony of the Habsburgs in Europe. Catholic Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, as well as the Czech Republic, Hungary and Croatia faced a strong adversary in the person of Sweden, England and Scotland, France, the Danish-Norwegian union and the Netherlands. There were many disputed territories in Europe that fueled the conflict. The war ended with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia. He, in fact, did away with feudal and medieval Europe, setting new boundaries for the main parties. And from the point of view of hostilities, Germany suffered the main damage. Up to 5 million people died there alone, the Swedes destroyed almost all metallurgy, a third of the cities. It is believed that Germany recovered from demographic losses only after 100 years.
Second Congolese War. In 1998-2002, the Great African War broke out on the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This conflict has become the most destructive among the numerous wars on the Black Continent over the past half century. The war initially arose between pro-government and forces and militias against the president's regime. The destructive nature of the conflict was associated with the participation of neighboring countries. In total, more than twenty armed groups participated in the war, representing nine countries! Namibia, Chad, Zimbabwe and Angola supported the legitimate government, while Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi supported rebels seeking to seize power. The conflict officially ended in 2002 with the signing of a peace agreement. However, this agreement looked fragile and temporary. A new war is currently raging in the Congo, despite the presence of peacekeepers in the country. And the global conflict itself in 1998-2002 claimed the lives of more than 5 million people, becoming the deadliest since the Second World War. Moreover, most of the victims died from hunger and disease.
Napoleonic Wars. Under this collective name are known the hostilities that Napoleon waged from the time of his consulate in 1799 until his abdication in 1815. The main confrontation was between France and Great Britain. As a result, combat battles between them manifested themselves in a whole series of naval battles in different parts of the world, as well as a major land war in Europe. On the side of Napoleon, who gradually conquered Europe, the allies - Spain, Italy, Holland - also acted. The coalition of the allies was constantly changing, in 1815 Napoleon fell before the forces of the seventh composition. The decline of Napoleon was associated with failures in the Pyrenees and the campaign to Russia. In 1813, the emperor ceded Germany, and in 1814, France. The final episode of the conflict was the Battle of Waterloo, lost by Napoleon. In all, those wars claimed 4 to 6 million people on both sides.
Civil war in Russia. These events took place on the territory of the former Russian Empire between 1917 and 1922. For several centuries the country was ruled by tsars, but in the fall of 1917, the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, seized power. After storming the Winter Palace, they removed the Provisional Government. The country, which still took part in the First World War, immediately became involved in a new, this time internecine conflict. The People's Red Army was opposed by both the pro-Tsarist forces, eager to restore the former regime, and the nationalists, who were solving their local problems. In addition, the Entente decided to support the anti-Bolshevik forces by landing in Russia. The war raged in the north - the British landed in Arkhangelsk, in the east - the captive Czechoslovak corps rebelled, in the south - the uprisings of the Cossacks and campaigns of the Volunteer Army, and almost all of the west, according to the terms of the Brest-Litovsk Peace, went to Germany. For five years of fierce fighting, the Bolsheviks defeated the scattered forces of the enemy. The civil war split the country - after all, political views forced even relatives to fight against each other. Soviet Russia emerged from the conflict in ruins. Rural production decreased by 40%, practically the entire intelligentsia was destroyed, and the level of industry fell 5 times. In total, more than 10 million people died during the Civil War, another 2 million left Russia in a hurry.
Taiping uprising. And again we will talk about the civil war. This time it broke out in China in 1850-1864. In the country, the Christian Hong Xiuquan formed the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. This state existed in parallel with the Qing Manchu Empire. The revolutionaries occupied almost all of southern China with a population of 30 million. The Taipings began to carry out their drastic social transformations, including religious ones. This uprising led to a series of similar ones in other parts of the Qing empire. The country was split into several regions that declared their own independence. The Taipings occupied such large cities as Wuhan and Nanjing, and their sympathetic troops also occupied Shanghai. The rebels even undertook campaigns against Beijing. However, all the indulgences that the Taipings gave the peasants were nullified by a protracted war. By the late 1860s, it became clear that the Qing Dynasty could not end the rebels. Then the Western countries, pursuing their own interests, entered the fight against the Taiping. It was only thanks to the British and French that the revolutionary movement was suppressed. This war led to a huge number of victims - from 20 to 30 million people.
World War I. The First World War marked the beginning of modern wars as we know them. This global conflict took place from 1914 to 1918. The preconditions for the beginning of the war were the contradictions between the greatest powers of Europe - Germany, England, Austria-Hungary, France and Russia. By 1914, two blocs were formed - the Entente (Great Britain, France and the Russian Empire) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy). The pretext for the outbreak of hostilities was the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. In 1915, Italy entered the war on the side of the Entente, but the Turks and Bulgarians joined Germany. Even countries such as China, Cuba, Brazil and Japan took the side of the Entente. By the beginning of the war, more than 16 million people were in the armies of the parties. Tanks and aircraft appeared on the battlefields. The First World War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919. As a result of this conflict, four empires disappeared from the political map at once: Russian, German, Austro-Hungary and Ottoman. Germany turned out to be so weakened and territorially curtailed that this gave rise to revanchist sentiments that led the Nazis to power. The participating countries have lost more than 10 million killed soldiers, more than 20 million civilians have died due to hunger and epidemics. Another 55 million people were injured.
Korean War. Today, it seems that a new war is about to break out on the Korean Peninsula. And this situation began to take shape back in the early 1950s. After the end of World War II, Korea was divided into separate northern and southern territories. The former adhered to the communist course with the support of the USSR, while the latter were influenced by America. For several years, relations between the parties were very tense, until the northerners decided to invade their neighbors in order to unite the nation. At the same time, the communist Koreans were supported not only by the Soviet Union, but also by the PRC with the help of its volunteers. And on the side of the South, in addition to the United States, the United Kingdom and the UN peacekeeping forces also spoke. After a year of active hostilities, it became clear that the situation had reached an impasse. Each side had an army of millions, and there could be no question of a decisive advantage. Only in 1953 was a ceasefire agreement signed, and the front line was fixed at the 38th parallel. And a peace treaty that would formally end the war was never signed. The conflict destroyed 80% of the entire infrastructure of Korea, several million people died. This war only exacerbated the confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Holy crusades. Military campaigns in the XI-XV centuries are known under this name. Medieval Christian kingdoms with religious motivation opposed the Muslim peoples who inhabited the sacred lands in the Middle East. First of all, Europeans wanted to liberate Jerusalem, but then the cross passages began to pursue political and religious goals in other lands. Young warriors from all over Europe fought against Muslims in the territories of modern Turkey, Palestine and Israel, defending their faith. This global movement was of great importance to the continent. First of all, it turned out to be a weakened Eastern empire, which eventually fell under the rule of the Turks. The crusaders themselves brought home a lot of oriental signs and traditions. The campaigns led to the rapprochement of both classes and nationalities. The seeds of unity were born in Europe. It was the crusades that created the ideal of the knight. The most important consequence of the conflict is the penetration of the culture of the East into the West. The development of navigation and trade also took place. The number of victims due to the long-term conflict between Europe and Asia can only be guessed at, but this is undoubtedly millions of people.
Mongol conquests. In the XIII-XIV centuries, the conquests of the Mongols led to the creation of an empire of an unprecedented size, which even had a genetic influence on some ethnic groups. The Mongols conquered a vast territory of nine and a half million square miles. The empire stretched from Hungary to the East China Sea. The expansion lasted for more than a century and a half. Many territories were devastated, cities and cultural monuments were destroyed. The most famous figure among the Mongols was Genghis Khan. It is believed that it was he who united the eastern nomadic tribes, which made it possible to create such an impressive force. In the occupied territories, states such as the Golden Horde, the Huluguid country, and the Yuan Empire arose. The number of human lives taken by the expansion is between 30 and 60 million.
The Second World War. Only a little more than twenty years have passed since the end of the First World War, as another global conflict broke out. World War II became, without a doubt, the largest military event in the history of mankind. The enemy's troops numbered up to 100 million people, who represented 61 states (out of 73 that existed at that time). The conflict lasted from 1939 to 1945. It began in Europe with the invasion of German troops into the territory of their neighbors (Czechoslovakia and Poland). It became clear that the German dictator Adolf Hitler was striving for world domination. Great Britain with its colonies, as well as France, declared war on Nazi Germany. The Germans were able to capture almost all of Central and Western Europe, but the attack on the Soviet Union was fatal for Hitler. And in 1941, after the attack on the United States of Germany's ally, Japan, America also entered the war. Three continents and four oceans have become theaters of conflict. Ultimately, the war ended with the defeat and surrender of Germany, Japan and their allies. And the United States still managed to use the latest weapon - a nuclear bomb. The total number of military and civilian casualties on both sides is believed to be around 75 million. As a result of the war, Western Europe lost its leading role in politics, and the USA and the USSR became world leaders. The war showed that colonial empires had already become irrelevant, which led to the emergence of new independent countries.